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Turns

06 Oct

Turns

Level Turns

Objective: To develop the pilots knowledge and skill in performing level turns in IMC

A turn is a maneuver used to change the heading of the aircraft while maintaining constant ALT (PTS +/-10’, +/- 100ft)

  • All turns are preformed at standard rate – 3’ per second (2 min turn per 360’)
  • Relationship between airspeed and bank angle needed for a standard rate turn (KIAS/10) + 7
  • Instruments used
  1. AI – is primary for initially rolling into and out of the turn and supports pitch control
  2. *Turn coordinator- primary in the turn used to maintain standard rate and to indicate the quality of the turn
  3. *ALT – primary for pitch during the turn
  4. HI – all changes of direction (turns)  are a result of a change in bank
  5. ASI – power

Entering and maintaining a level turn

  • Apply coordinated aileron and rudder pressure in direction of the turn. Use AI to initially establish the bank angle then verify standard rate with the turn coordinator
  • *During turn use ALT and AI  to maintain level pitch attitude- back pressure may be needed, trim it off as required
  • When turning to a heading use HI to judge when to roll out (1/2 bank angle)

Rolling out of the turn

  • Newton’s first law (law of inertia), aircraft will continue to turn at standard rate until corrected
  • *Lead the roll out  by half the bank angle set i.e. 15’ bank means roll out 7-8’ before
  • Small corrections – Bank angle should never exceed the # of degrees to be turned
  • Turns of less than 20’ should be made at half standard rate
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