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Holds

08 Feb

HOLDS

Why Hold’s?

Traffic Spacing

Course Reversal

Lost Communications

Weather (wait to Clear)

Missed Approach

What is it?

Airspace in the shape of a racetrack used by ATC, for traffic delay of arrivals, over a given fix on NAVAID’S, either intersection of airways or intersection.

Fixes used:

VOR

INTERCEPTIONS

GPS WAYPOINTS

DME DIST FROM FIX

OUTER MARKER

ON LOCALIZER COURSE

Speeds (propeller a\c is 175 kn then as depicted on approach plates under a\c category)

200 kn-(SFC – 6000)

230 kn (6001-14000)(210 when published)

265 kn (14001 – ∝ )

Leg times

1 minute below 14,000

1.5 minutes above 14,000

Turns: a standard turn is to the right. If turns were to the left, it would be stated in the clearance. These are referred to as non standard turns.

Bank: all turns are to Standard rate. Never to exceed 25°.

Recommended Entries: explain and show examples of each entry

Direct: if the aircraft nose after reaching the fix, is on the fixed arc portion.

Teardrop: if the aircraft’s nose after reaching the fix, is on the holding side of the track.

Parallel: if the aircraft nose after reaching the fix, on the non holding side of the track.

Clearances Elements:

  1. Cardinal direction from the holding fix.
  2. Fix name
  3. Course (radial, airway or route)
  4. Leg length in miles if DME or RNAV is used
  5. Direction of turns (omitted is standard turns are to be used)
  6. Expect further clearance (EFC)

The simplest hold clearance is “ hold as published

Example of hold Clearance: “N8724M cleared to the “ABC” VOR; hold East on the 90 radial, EFC 30 min past the hr.”

Holding Instructions:

  • If you arrive at your clearance limit before clearance beyond the fix, ATC expects to maintain the last assigned altitude and begin holding in accordance to depicted pattern.
  • If a pattern is not shown, hold standard turns on the course you approached the fix. Immediately request further clearance.
  • ATC will issue clearance at least 5 minutes ETA to the fix if delays are expected.
  • If a hold is published and controller does not issue a complete clearance, the pilot is expected to fly the hold as depicted.
  • When a/c is 3 minutes or less from a clearance limit, and no clearance beyond the point has received, the pilot is expected to start a speed reduction to cross the fix at or below the maximum holding airspeed.

Holding pattern and its components:

A Holding and non-holding sides

B Inbound course

C Outbound course

D Legs

E Abeam Point

Holding side

Non-Holding Side

Wind Effects on Holding Patterns:

In compliance with the holding pattern procedure given in AIM, the symmetrical racetrack pattern cannot be tracked when winds exist.

Pilots are expected to:

  • Compensate for the effect of a known wind except when turning
  • Adjust outbound timing to achieve a one minute inbound leg. (1.5 minutes above 14,000 feet)

See pp 10-11 on Instrument Hand Book

Figure 10-5

References AIM 5-3-7

Chapter 10 Inst HB (8083-15) pp 10-10

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