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Category Archives: Instrument

Instrument Pilot

MACHO, MACHO-MAN, I don’t want to by a MACHO MAN!

As I pilot you are aware of the five deadly attitudes: Resignation, Anti-Authority, Impulsivity, Invulnerability and Macho.

I have been flying since 2000. And don’t recall ever fighting these attitudes until recently.

I belong to several flying clubs. I say this to reinforce the fact that, flying has become my greatest adventure.   I am a type ‘A’ personality. Which latter I am finding out a very high percent of pilots fall under this personality group (interesting is in it?).

I have a girlfriend that loves going flying with me. While this is of great joy, since statistically, almost half of pilots’s partner do not like to fly. Having this partner in crime also adds an extra layer of pressure and responsibility to me. Bringing her home safe.

One of the flying clubs I mentioned, Florida Aero Club, have a Chapter monthly dinner meeting and a Chapter monthly fly in. We also have a State Wide, (all chapters in the State) biannual fly in weekend. I have only missed one since becoming a member. I have made great connections with pilots there partner from all the State Chapters. Being a flying club you want to fly to these activities.

This last State fly in was threatened with bad weather almost throughout the entire state both going and returning. On the way back from a great weekend, after having done all my weather studies, I arrive at the FBO to see all other Chapter members there. Ceilings were reported at 800-1000 feet and they were not IFR rated or IFR Current. In my mind I could have made the trip back. Looked at all obstacle in my modified IFR plan which was fly East miss the cell and then cancel and stay on flight watch under VFR rules.

While thinking in all the options including that my girlfriend and I both having to be back to work the next day, she is a very dedicated Head Start teacher, there are friends there which as an instructor I did not want to give them a bad example. Something in my mind click. All of the sudden, I did not want to fly.

While I enjoy flying so much, I go through a mental process and get mentally ready for the task. I could have been that MACHO guy impressing the pilots at the FBO and my girlfriend. I could have made it home safe. Am I sure of that?

After over seven hours driving home I observer the weather I would have flown in and was happy to see I made the right decision. This decision was latter challenged by the great weather at the destination airport.

While this go / no-go decision was  not that easy to make I am glad I made it. My girlfriend was very grateful in my brining her home safe, I made a new couple of friends, they road with us, and I modeled to other pilots the antidote to one of the attitude that could have made us part of the Nall Report Statistics. Other pilots also rented car and followed my lead.

Not a bad day from a CFI’s point of view.

I hope this short article helps other pilots facing similar situations in this storm season. Be safe fly another day.

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Certificate of Authorization for My Employer

Certificate of Authorization for My Employer

I starting the process for the approval of  an FAA COA approval for Miami Dade County Transportation and Publics Works Department. This was in May of 2015. The application has gone back and forward a number of times. As of today 5/4/2016 is not  approved.

As this was going on a change in the COA application requirements has taken place. In a matter of weeks I was awarded a Blanket COA (new Application submitted) to 400 AGL, Class E and  including a very extensive Operational Area. With this approval comes a great degree of responsibility.

Fly responsibly, you are  operation equipment that could be harmful to all other aircrafts.

I was on final approach and the tower reported drone spotted at 1000 ft on 10R (ten right) landing path. I never spotted the drone. That was scary for me not knowing if I was going to contact another flying object that could have caused: at minimal property damage not to mention possible crashing my vessel and death.

Please make sure you operate away from airports and other Areas which could be found in an application called “B4UFLY” on the app store and or Google Play. I was a beta tester for this app and its really great and a tool for you to have if you are to operate a drone.

Remember also drones from 0.55 lbs to 55 lbs must be registered with the FAA.

 

The Air Traffic Control SystemFlorida Aero Club Fall Fly In

 

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Florida Aero Club Fall Fly In

At the Florida Aero Club fall fly in, which took place from Oct 16 to Oct 18, 2015, I was made in-charged of the social media for the club.

Now we have social media in two additional popular organizations #Twitter and #Instagram. My next step is to create a messaging routing system for my local chapter North Perry. Perry’s monthly fly ins have a backup plan to go eat somewhere if the weather does not cooperate. This messaging option will allow us to keep informed in knowing if we took off or will eat at the designated backup location.

Find us in both Twitter and Instagram as #floridaaeroclub on both apps.(Ill see if i get also into google plus)

I also created an email which will receive the notifications generated by these two social media pages if you will. the email cold also be used for our state business. the email is: floridaaeroclub@gmail.com

 

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Holds

HOLDS

Why Hold’s?

Traffic Spacing

Course Reversal

Lost Communications

Weather (wait to Clear)

Missed Approach

What is it?

Airspace in the shape of a racetrack used by ATC, for traffic delay of arrivals, over a given fix on NAVAID’S, either intersection of airways or intersection.

Fixes used:

VOR

INTERCEPTIONS

GPS WAYPOINTS

DME DIST FROM FIX

OUTER MARKER

ON LOCALIZER COURSE

Speeds (propeller a\c is 175 kn then as depicted on approach plates under a\c category)

200 kn-(SFC – 6000)

230 kn (6001-14000)(210 when published)

265 kn (14001 – ∝ )

Leg times

1 minute below 14,000

1.5 minutes above 14,000

Turns: a standard turn is to the right. If turns were to the left, it would be stated in the clearance. These are referred to as non standard turns.

Bank: all turns are to Standard rate. Never to exceed 25°.

Recommended Entries: explain and show examples of each entry

Direct: if the aircraft nose after reaching the fix, is on the fixed arc portion.

Teardrop: if the aircraft’s nose after reaching the fix, is on the holding side of the track.

Parallel: if the aircraft nose after reaching the fix, on the non holding side of the track.

Clearances Elements:

  1. Cardinal direction from the holding fix.
  2. Fix name
  3. Course (radial, airway or route)
  4. Leg length in miles if DME or RNAV is used
  5. Direction of turns (omitted is standard turns are to be used)
  6. Expect further clearance (EFC)

The simplest hold clearance is “ hold as published

Example of hold Clearance: “N8724M cleared to the “ABC” VOR; hold East on the 90 radial, EFC 30 min past the hr.”

Holding Instructions:

  • If you arrive at your clearance limit before clearance beyond the fix, ATC expects to maintain the last assigned altitude and begin holding in accordance to depicted pattern.
  • If a pattern is not shown, hold standard turns on the course you approached the fix. Immediately request further clearance.
  • ATC will issue clearance at least 5 minutes ETA to the fix if delays are expected.
  • If a hold is published and controller does not issue a complete clearance, the pilot is expected to fly the hold as depicted.
  • When a/c is 3 minutes or less from a clearance limit, and no clearance beyond the point has received, the pilot is expected to start a speed reduction to cross the fix at or below the maximum holding airspeed.

Holding pattern and its components:

A Holding and non-holding sides

B Inbound course

C Outbound course

D Legs

E Abeam Point

Holding side

Non-Holding Side

Wind Effects on Holding Patterns:

In compliance with the holding pattern procedure given in AIM, the symmetrical racetrack pattern cannot be tracked when winds exist.

Pilots are expected to:

  • Compensate for the effect of a known wind except when turning
  • Adjust outbound timing to achieve a one minute inbound leg. (1.5 minutes above 14,000 feet)

See pp 10-11 on Instrument Hand Book

Figure 10-5

References AIM 5-3-7

Chapter 10 Inst HB (8083-15) pp 10-10

 

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Steep Turns

Steep Turns (Practical Lesson)

Objective: To control the A/C by reference to instruments while performing greater-than-normal bank attitudes

*Any turn greater than standard is considered steep. In IFR never exceed std. rate turns. Practicing steep turns will make reactions smooth, quick, and pilot more confident controlling A/C when encountering actual IMC.

Set-up:

– Va set power to 2,100RPM

  • Set ALT, trim
  • Clear area

Maneuver:

  • Pick HI and ALT, set Va
  • Bank *SMOOTHLY with reference to AI
  • As passing 30’ add 100 RPM (Vertical component of lift drops – extra RPM will compensate)
  • Establish 45’ by AI
  • *Scan ALT, VSI, AI, TC *increase scan
  • *Trim as necessary (correct direction)
  • Check HI and plan to roll out at ½ bank *(approx. 20’-25’)
  • Start roll out *SMOOTH *AI (precession of the horizon bar)
  • Remove extra RPM
  • Re- trim
 

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Airspace

Airspace

Categories

Regulatory (Class A, B, C, D, E, restricted and Prohibited)

Non Regulatory (Military Operating Areas, Warning Areas, Alert Areas, Control Firing Areas”CFR’s”)

Types:

Controlled Uncontrolled Special Use Other Airspace

Hierarchy of Overlapping Airspace

When overlapping exist most restrictive airspace applies Class A more restrictive than Class B. Class B more restrictive than Class C and so on.

Basic VFR Weather Minimums

See Table 3-1-1 Aim Chapter 3

I – Controlled Airspace

Class A:

Definition: 18000 AGL to FL 60(60000 AGL)

Operation Rules: File IFR and ATC Clearance, Mode C(only one not charted)

Class B:

Definition: Tailored, usually SFC-10,000 AGL

2 or more Layers (upside Down wedding cake) Designated to contain all published Instrument Procedures

Operation Rules: Clearance Req.

Two Way VOR or Tacan for IFR operations(unless authorized not to) Mode C (unless authorized to not have) 1 hr prior notice Minimum of Private Ticket to land/takeoff the BBB 12(AIM 3-2-3)

 

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Timed Turns To Magnetic Compass Headings

Timed Turns To Magnetic Compass Headings

  • Used to make turns in the event of a HI failure
  • Two methods: Timed and compass

Timed Turns

  • With rate held constant (3’per second)one can calculate the amount of time required to turn a specific number of degrees
  • Determine the amount of bank: (KIAS/10) + 7 example: you are flying at 120 Kn e.g. 120/10=12 plus 7 = 19 19 degrees is your std bank for 120 kn.

Calibrating the turn coordinator:

  • Must verify TC is truly calibrated at standard rate
  • Aircraft should turn 45’ per quadrant of the clock(15seconds/3per second)
  • If SHORT on MC increase TC one bar over std. rate trn. 
  • If LONG on MC decrease TC one bar under std. rate trn.

Performing a timed turn:

  1. Determine the heading that must be flown
  2. Determine your current heading with the magnetic compass (in level flight)
  3. Determine the amount of time to reach the new HDG
  4. Start time and immediately roll into a standard rate turn
  5. *Monitor ALT & VSI
  6. Roll out when the specified time has elapsed
  7. Check heading on MC (mag compass)
  8. If SHORT on MC increase TC one bar over std. rate trn.
  9. If LONG on MC decrease TC one bar under std. rate trn.

Compass Turns

  • Compass is the only direction-indicating instrument independent of the aircraft
  • Normally used to set and check the HI but with compensation for errors it can be used to make turns
  • Abrupt movements and accelerations have a big effect
  • Compass appears to move in opposite direction of turn
  • Errors:
  1. If you are on a N heading and you start a turn to the E or W, the compass indication lags, or shows a turn in the opposite direction.
  2. If you are on a S heading and you start a turn toward the E or W, the compass indication speeds up ahead of the turn, showing a greater amount of turn than is actually occurring.
  3. When you are on an E or W heading, the compass indicates correctly as you start a turn in either direction.
  4. If you are on an easterly or westerly heading, acceleration results in a northerly turn indication; deceleration results in a southerly turn indication.
  5. If you maintain a north or south heading, no error results from diving, climbing, or changing airspeed.
  • ANDS(anticipate and accelerate north) UNOS
  • Lead and lag is determined by the latitude at which you are flying
  • N – 26’+ ½ bank angle (7’) = 33’
  • S – 26’-7’=19’
 

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