I am about to embark to a trip in which the Control/Approach Center gives pressure in millibars(MB). By writing this small tutorial I would commit to memory a simple formula that will help me convert millibars to inches of mercury. My aircraft does not have the capability of dialing the MB so this formula will come in handy.

Whatever MB Center gives you, multiply it by 30″ and dived it by 1016MB. the result would be the pressure to input in your Kollsman window.

It so happens that MB is a linear function to inch of MG. at 1016 MB is 30 inches of Mercury therefore a simple proportion converts from one units to the other. eg 980 MB is 980*(30/1016)=28.937 (28.94 on Kollsman Window)

Hope this comes in handy for you also and maybe if a question pops up in one of your FAA written test you could ace the question.


Commercial, Instrument, Private

Florida Aero Club Fall Fly In

At the Florida Aero Club fall fly in, which took place from Oct 16 to Oct 18, 2015, I was made in-charged of the social media for the club.

Now we have social media in two additional popular organizations #Twitter and #Instagram. My next step is to create a messaging routing system for my local chapter North Perry. Perry’s monthly fly ins have a backup plan to go eat somewhere if the weather does not cooperate. This messaging option will allow us to keep informed in knowing if we took off or will eat at the designated backup location.

Find us in both Twitter and Instagram as #floridaaeroclub on both apps.(Ill see if i get also into google plus)

I also created an email which will receive the notifications generated by these two social media pages if you will. the email cold also be used for our state business. the email is: floridaaeroclub@gmail.com

Commercial, Instrument



Why Hold’s?

Traffic Spacing

Course Reversal

Lost Communications

Weather (wait to Clear)

Missed Approach

What is it?

Airspace in the shape of a racetrack used by ATC, for traffic delay of arrivals, over a given fix on NAVAID’S, either intersection of airways or intersection.

Fixes used:







Speeds (propeller a\c is 175 kn then as depicted on approach plates under a\c category)

200 kn-(SFC – 6000)

230 kn (6001-14000)(210 when published)

265 kn (14001 – ∝ )

Leg times

1 minute below 14,000

1.5 minutes above 14,000

Turns: a standard turn is to the right. If turns were to the left, it would be stated in the clearance. These are referred to as non standard turns.

Bank: all turns are to Standard rate. Never to exceed 25°.

Recommended Entries: explain and show examples of each entry

Direct: if the aircraft nose after reaching the fix, is on the fixed arc portion.

Teardrop: if the aircraft’s nose after reaching the fix, is on the holding side of the track.

Parallel: if the aircraft nose after reaching the fix, on the non holding side of the track.

Clearances Elements:

  1. Cardinal direction from the holding fix.
  2. Fix name
  3. Course (radial, airway or route)
  4. Leg length in miles if DME or RNAV is used
  5. Direction of turns (omitted is standard turns are to be used)
  6. Expect further clearance (EFC)

The simplest hold clearance is “ hold as published

Example of hold Clearance: “N8724M cleared to the “ABC” VOR; hold East on the 90 radial, EFC 30 min past the hr.”

Holding Instructions:

  • If you arrive at your clearance limit before clearance beyond the fix, ATC expects to maintain the last assigned altitude and begin holding in accordance to depicted pattern.
  • If a pattern is not shown, hold standard turns on the course you approached the fix. Immediately request further clearance.
  • ATC will issue clearance at least 5 minutes ETA to the fix if delays are expected.
  • If a hold is published and controller does not issue a complete clearance, the pilot is expected to fly the hold as depicted.
  • When a/c is 3 minutes or less from a clearance limit, and no clearance beyond the point has received, the pilot is expected to start a speed reduction to cross the fix at or below the maximum holding airspeed.

Holding pattern and its components:

A Holding and non-holding sides

B Inbound course

C Outbound course

D Legs

E Abeam Point

Holding side

Non-Holding Side

Wind Effects on Holding Patterns:

In compliance with the holding pattern procedure given in AIM, the symmetrical racetrack pattern cannot be tracked when winds exist.

Pilots are expected to:

  • Compensate for the effect of a known wind except when turning
  • Adjust outbound timing to achieve a one minute inbound leg. (1.5 minutes above 14,000 feet)

See pp 10-11 on Instrument Hand Book

Figure 10-5

References AIM 5-3-7

Chapter 10 Inst HB (8083-15) pp 10-10


Steep Turns

we have a rule of thumb to calculate the standard Bank for a given speed.
so at any given speed lets say 120 knots. what would your standard rate bank angle be?



19 degrees would be your standard bank angle to establish and fly a standard rate turn.

If this information is available on the aircrafts manual the posted bank shall be used.