Tag Archives: Josue Tirado Muniz

Certificate of Authorization for My Employer

Certificate of Authorization for My Employer

I starting the process for the approval of  an FAA COA approval for Miami Dade County Transportation and Publics Works Department. This was in May of 2015. The application has gone back and forward a number of times. As of today 5/4/2016 is not  approved.

As this was going on a change in the COA application requirements has taken place. In a matter of weeks I was awarded a Blanket COA (new Application submitted) to 400 AGL, Class E and  including a very extensive Operational Area. With this approval comes a great degree of responsibility.

Fly responsibly, you are  operation equipment that could be harmful to all other aircrafts.

I was on final approach and the tower reported drone spotted at 1000 ft on 10R (ten right) landing path. I never spotted the drone. That was scary for me not knowing if I was going to contact another flying object that could have caused: at minimal property damage not to mention possible crashing my vessel and death.

Please make sure you operate away from airports and other Areas which could be found in an application called “B4UFLY” on the app store and or Google Play. I was a beta tester for this app and its really great and a tool for you to have if you are to operate a drone.

Remember also drones from 0.55 lbs to 55 lbs must be registered with the FAA.


The Air Traffic Control SystemFlorida Aero Club Fall Fly In


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Why Hold’s?

Traffic Spacing

Course Reversal

Lost Communications

Weather (wait to Clear)

Missed Approach

What is it?

Airspace in the shape of a racetrack used by ATC, for traffic delay of arrivals, over a given fix on NAVAID’S, either intersection of airways or intersection.

Fixes used:







Speeds (propeller a\c is 175 kn then as depicted on approach plates under a\c category)

200 kn-(SFC – 6000)

230 kn (6001-14000)(210 when published)

265 kn (14001 – ∝ )

Leg times

1 minute below 14,000

1.5 minutes above 14,000

Turns: a standard turn is to the right. If turns were to the left, it would be stated in the clearance. These are referred to as non standard turns.

Bank: all turns are to Standard rate. Never to exceed 25°.

Recommended Entries: explain and show examples of each entry

Direct: if the aircraft nose after reaching the fix, is on the fixed arc portion.

Teardrop: if the aircraft’s nose after reaching the fix, is on the holding side of the track.

Parallel: if the aircraft nose after reaching the fix, on the non holding side of the track.

Clearances Elements:

  1. Cardinal direction from the holding fix.
  2. Fix name
  3. Course (radial, airway or route)
  4. Leg length in miles if DME or RNAV is used
  5. Direction of turns (omitted is standard turns are to be used)
  6. Expect further clearance (EFC)

The simplest hold clearance is “ hold as published

Example of hold Clearance: “N8724M cleared to the “ABC” VOR; hold East on the 90 radial, EFC 30 min past the hr.”

Holding Instructions:

  • If you arrive at your clearance limit before clearance beyond the fix, ATC expects to maintain the last assigned altitude and begin holding in accordance to depicted pattern.
  • If a pattern is not shown, hold standard turns on the course you approached the fix. Immediately request further clearance.
  • ATC will issue clearance at least 5 minutes ETA to the fix if delays are expected.
  • If a hold is published and controller does not issue a complete clearance, the pilot is expected to fly the hold as depicted.
  • When a/c is 3 minutes or less from a clearance limit, and no clearance beyond the point has received, the pilot is expected to start a speed reduction to cross the fix at or below the maximum holding airspeed.

Holding pattern and its components:

A Holding and non-holding sides

B Inbound course

C Outbound course

D Legs

E Abeam Point

Holding side

Non-Holding Side

Wind Effects on Holding Patterns:

In compliance with the holding pattern procedure given in AIM, the symmetrical racetrack pattern cannot be tracked when winds exist.

Pilots are expected to:

  • Compensate for the effect of a known wind except when turning
  • Adjust outbound timing to achieve a one minute inbound leg. (1.5 minutes above 14,000 feet)

See pp 10-11 on Instrument Hand Book

Figure 10-5

References AIM 5-3-7

Chapter 10 Inst HB (8083-15) pp 10-10


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Steep Turns

we have a rule of thumb to calculate the standard Bank for a given speed.
so at any given speed lets say 120 knots. what would your standard rate bank angle be?



19 degrees would be your standard bank angle to establish and fly a standard rate turn.

If this information is available on the aircrafts manual the posted bank shall be used.


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Steep Turns

Steep Turns (Practical Lesson)

Objective: To control the A/C by reference to instruments while performing greater-than-normal bank attitudes

*Any turn greater than standard is considered steep. In IFR never exceed std. rate turns. Practicing steep turns will make reactions smooth, quick, and pilot more confident controlling A/C when encountering actual IMC.


– Va set power to 2,100RPM

  • Set ALT, trim
  • Clear area


  • Pick HI and ALT, set Va
  • Bank *SMOOTHLY with reference to AI
  • As passing 30’ add 100 RPM (Vertical component of lift drops – extra RPM will compensate)
  • Establish 45’ by AI
  • *Scan ALT, VSI, AI, TC *increase scan
  • *Trim as necessary (correct direction)
  • Check HI and plan to roll out at ½ bank *(approx. 20’-25’)
  • Start roll out *SMOOTH *AI (precession of the horizon bar)
  • Remove extra RPM
  • Re- trim

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Regulatory (Class A, B, C, D, E, restricted and Prohibited)

Non Regulatory (Military Operating Areas, Warning Areas, Alert Areas, Control Firing Areas”CFR’s”)


Controlled Uncontrolled Special Use Other Airspace

Hierarchy of Overlapping Airspace

When overlapping exist most restrictive airspace applies Class A more restrictive than Class B. Class B more restrictive than Class C and so on.

Basic VFR Weather Minimums

See Table 3-1-1 Aim Chapter 3

I – Controlled Airspace

Class A:

Definition: 18000 AGL to FL 60(60000 AGL)

Operation Rules: File IFR and ATC Clearance, Mode C(only one not charted)

Class B:

Definition: Tailored, usually SFC-10,000 AGL

2 or more Layers (upside Down wedding cake) Designated to contain all published Instrument Procedures

Operation Rules: Clearance Req.

Two Way VOR or Tacan for IFR operations(unless authorized not to) Mode C (unless authorized to not have) 1 hr prior notice Minimum of Private Ticket to land/takeoff the BBB 12(AIM 3-2-3)


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Timed Turns To Magnetic Compass Headings

Timed Turns To Magnetic Compass Headings

  • Used to make turns in the event of a HI failure
  • Two methods: Timed and compass

Timed Turns

  • With rate held constant (3’per second)one can calculate the amount of time required to turn a specific number of degrees
  • Determine the amount of bank: (KIAS/10) + 7 example: you are flying at 120 Kn e.g. 120/10=12 plus 7 = 19 19 degrees is your std bank for 120 kn.

Calibrating the turn coordinator:

  • Must verify TC is truly calibrated at standard rate
  • Aircraft should turn 45’ per quadrant of the clock(15seconds/3per second)
  • If SHORT on MC increase TC one bar over std. rate trn. 
  • If LONG on MC decrease TC one bar under std. rate trn.

Performing a timed turn:

  1. Determine the heading that must be flown
  2. Determine your current heading with the magnetic compass (in level flight)
  3. Determine the amount of time to reach the new HDG
  4. Start time and immediately roll into a standard rate turn
  5. *Monitor ALT & VSI
  6. Roll out when the specified time has elapsed
  7. Check heading on MC (mag compass)
  8. If SHORT on MC increase TC one bar over std. rate trn.
  9. If LONG on MC decrease TC one bar under std. rate trn.

Compass Turns

  • Compass is the only direction-indicating instrument independent of the aircraft
  • Normally used to set and check the HI but with compensation for errors it can be used to make turns
  • Abrupt movements and accelerations have a big effect
  • Compass appears to move in opposite direction of turn
  • Errors:
  1. If you are on a N heading and you start a turn to the E or W, the compass indication lags, or shows a turn in the opposite direction.
  2. If you are on a S heading and you start a turn toward the E or W, the compass indication speeds up ahead of the turn, showing a greater amount of turn than is actually occurring.
  3. When you are on an E or W heading, the compass indicates correctly as you start a turn in either direction.
  4. If you are on an easterly or westerly heading, acceleration results in a northerly turn indication; deceleration results in a southerly turn indication.
  5. If you maintain a north or south heading, no error results from diving, climbing, or changing airspeed.
  • ANDS(anticipate and accelerate north) UNOS
  • Lead and lag is determined by the latitude at which you are flying
  • N – 26’+ ½ bank angle (7’) = 33’
  • S – 26’-7’=19’

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Aerodynamic Factors

Introduction This chapter outlines the factors affecting aircraft performance as a result of aerodynamics, including a review of basic aerodynamics, the atmosphere, and the effects of icing. Pilots need an understanding of these factors for a sound basis for prediction of aircraft response to control inputs, especially with regard to instrument approaches, while holding, and when operating at reduced airspeed in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC).

Review of Basic Aerodynamics

As an instrument pilot, you must understand the relationship and differences between the aircraft’s flightpath, angle of attack, and pitch attitude

The Four Forces The four basic forces acting upon an aircraft in flight are: lift, weight, thrust, and drag. The aerodynamic forces produced by the wing create lift. A byproduct of lift is induced drag. Induced drag combined with parasite drag (which is the sum of form drag, skin friction, and interference drag) produce the total drag on the aircraft. Thrust must equal total drag in order to maintain speed.

Newton’s First Law Newton’s First Law of Motion is the Law of Inertia, which states that a body in motion will remain in motion, in a straight line, unless acted upon by an outside force.

Newton’s Second Law Newton’s Second Law of Motion is the Law of Momentum, which states that a body will accelerate in the same direction as the force acting upon that body, and the acceleration will be directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body.

Newton’s Third Law Newton’s Third Law of Motion is the Law of Reaction, which states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.


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